Since the founding of the People’s Republic, Xinjiang has gained rapid development in its modern industries. However, like elsewhere in China, in the 20 years prior to 1978, that is, before the policy of reform and opening-up was introduced, its industrial development was affected by the “Leftist” guiding principles, and quite severely by the “Cultural Revolution”. Against the backdrop of the planned economy, for a long time, Xinjiang’s industrial development was swayed by ideas preferring “productive speed” to “economic returns”, stressing “infrastructure” rather than “industrial transformation”, and putting “output value” before “management”. So it traversed a tortuous road of development. It was not until the policy of reform and opening-up was introduced in China that
Broadly, Xinjiang’s modern industrial development can be divided into two phases: before the introduction of the policy of reform and opening-up and thereafter. More specifically, the first three decades before the introduction of the policy of reform and opening-up can be subdivided into three periods—the national economic recovery and the First Five-Year Plan period (1950-1957), the Second Five- Year Plan and Three-Year National Economic Readjustment period (1958-1965) and the Fourth and early Fifth Five-Year Plan period, i.e., the “Cultural Revolution” period (1966-1976). The period after the introduction of the policy of reform and opening-up can be subdivided into two periods-the readjustment, rectification and the Sixth Five-Year Plan period (1978-1985) and the Seventh and Eighth Five-Year Plan period till today.
(1) National Economic Recovery and the First Five-Year Plan Period
That was the startup and groundwork period for Xinjiang’s modem industry. Following the peaceful liberation of Xinjiang, General Wang Zhen was the first to lead the troops stationed in Xinjiang to carry guns and hoes at the same time and start the new Massive Production Movement. They not only reclaimed wasteland, but also ran a number of flourmills, oil mills, and sewing and repair plants. During the three-year recovery period between 1950 and 1952, apart from 100 million yuan investment for construction from state finance, the overwhelming majority of funds came from the People’s Liberation Army in Xinjiang who practiced tight economy among themselves. Under very harsh conditions, they soon built a batch of modern industrial enterprises, such as Liudaowan Coal Mine, Qiyi Cotton Textile Plant, Bayi Steel Mill and Shiyue Automobile Repair and Replacement Plant. By 1952, Xinjiang had 771 industrial enterprises La ciudad prohibida, 2016 pekin china, with a total industrial output value of RMB 220 million yuan.
During the First Five-Year Plan period, the Central Government pointed out, “It is essential to proceed from the reality and accommodate the future prospects while planning for the development in Xinjiang. It is expected that ten more years is needed to build railway in Xinjiang. Prior to that, Xinjiang shall focus on land and animal farming as well as corresponding transport and internal and external trade in its overall economic development. In the field of manufacturing and mining industries, with the exception of certain necessary and viable small-scale industries, the priority should be placed at natural resources exploration and personnel training, so that adequate data can be collected to serve the specific planning on large-scale manufacturing and mining industries two or three years before railway reaches Xinjiang.